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The Present Perfect

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How do we form the present perfect?
Subject + Have + past participle + object
I have cooked dinner


When do we use the present perfect?
11.  To describe experience
Example :
I have travelled the world
James has met the president
I have never been to space

72. To describe change over a period of time
Example :
House prices have increased a lot
Andrew has grown since the last time I saw him
This restaurant has become very popular

33. To describe accomplishments
Example :
Doctor have discovered cures for many disease
Man  has been  to the moon
The computer  hase made  it possible to learn online

44.  A continuing action that started in the past
Example :
Sam has worked  here for seven years
We  have been in relationship for 3 months
They  have been in the room all day

(from video GoEnglish.tv)


When we talk about :
11.       Actions that happened (or never happened) before now, at an unspecified time in the past
22.       The repetition of activity before now
33.       Activities that began in the past and continue to the present
We use Present Perfect Tense

Example :
(the first use)
I have already seen that movie
I have never seen snow
Have you ever visited Mexico?

(the second use)
We have had four tests so far
She has flown on an airplane many times

(the third use)
They have been here since four thirty
He has had this same pair of shoes for three years
I have known you for two and a half months

                Since + a particular time
                For + duration of time

*Jika kalimat menjelaskan durasi waktu dengan jelas maka kalimat itu adalah Simple past tense

Compare these statements :
1. Genevieve lived in Paris two years ago
(she no longer lives in Paris)
*Genevieve tinggal di Paris 2 tahun yang lalu. Genevieve 2 tahun yang lalu pasti tinggal di paris dan tidak akan berubah. Ini merupakan simple past tense karena kalimat sudah jelas terjadi dan tidak akan berubah.

-Genevieve has lived in Paris since she was two years old. (present perfect)
(She still lives in Paris)
*Genevieve telah tinggal di Paris sejak dia umur 2 tahun. Genevieve masih tinggal di paris dan mungkin usia dia tinggal di paris akan bertambah di masa depan.
= talk about number 3.  Activities that began in the past and continue to the present

2. Nina wrote a book about Thailand last year.
(occurred at a specific time in the past)
*Nina menulis buku tentang Thailand tahun lalu. Sudah jelas tidak akan berubah. Nina tidak mungkin  misalnya berubah menulis buku Thailand menjadi 2 tahun yang lalu.

-Nina has written a book about Thailand (present perfect)
(when she wrote the book is not known/not importan)
*Nina telah menulis buku tentang Thailand. Waktunya tidak di jelaskan kapan terjadi. Yang pasti itu sudah terjadi dimasa lalu entah setahun yang lalu sebulan yang lalu atau bisa 2 tahun yang lalu. Ketidakpastian waktu ini membuatnya menjadi kalimat present perfect.
= talk about number 1.  Actions that happened (or never happened) before now, at an unspecified time in the past

3. Sara started college two years ago
*Sara mulai kuliah 2 tahun yang lalu. Artinya jelas tidak akan ada perubahan. Sara tetap mulai kuliah 2 tahun yang lalu
-She has been a student for two years (present perfect)
*dia sudah menjadi seorang murid selama 2 tahun. Artinya dia masih seorang murid dan mungkin masih akan menjadi murid di masa depan. Jadi lamanya menjadi seorang murid akan berubah
= talk about number 3.  Activities that began in the past and continue to the present


Conversation Choose Simple past tense or present perfect

Ashley  : Hey Kevin. (Did you ever travel/Have you ever travelled) abroad?
*menanyakan experience (pengalaman) merupakan sesuatu yang akan terus berulang maka termasuk present perfect

Kevin     : Yes, I (did/have). I (went/have been) to France last year.
*mengunakan went karena sudah pasti waktu terjadi di tahun lalu dan tidak akan berubah.

Ashley  : Really?(Did you enjoy/Have you enjoyed) it?
*mengunakan did karena menanyakan perasaan sudah jelas tidak akan berubah

Kevin     : Yeah. It (was/has been) amazing. How about you?
*karena ditanya mengunakan simple past tense maka dijawab dengan simple past tense juga

Ashley  : Oh, I (didn’t go/haven’t been) to Europe. But I (have travelled/travelled) around South America for a month a couple of years ago. It’s great to see new places, isn’t it?
*mengunakan haven’t been(belum) karena ada kemungkinan dimasa depan akan pergi ke Europe. Tidak mungkin memakai didn’t go(tidak pergi) karena  tidak dapat dijamin dimasa depan tidak akan pergi ke Europe. Lalu menggunakan travelled karena ada sudah jelas ada waktunya dia pergi ke amerika selatan selama sebulan pada beberapa tahun yang lalu.

Kevin     : Yeah, It’s a nice change.

Today is _________. I moved to this city __________.
I have been in this city since _____________.
I have been here for ___________.

I first met our teacher ______.
I have known him/her for __________.
I have known him/her since ___________.

I first met my _________.
I have known him/her for _________.
I have known him/her since ___________.


Niswin
Hey you can call me Niswin. I born and live at Banjarmasin City, Kalimantan Selatan Province. I work as an administration in a small government office. I am blogger and reviewer book. I also love cat. You can follow my instagram @niswindows_com and also my lifestyle blog www.niswindows.com

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